7 GB) Magneto-optical disks (Pinnacle drives) Magnetic tape (used primarily for long term archive). Hard Disk Drive basics 26, input/Output Some Input devices n n n keyboard keypad mouse voice activation touch screen Digitizers and pen-based (stylus) systems. Some output devices n n n Monitor Printer Speakers Communication (comm) ports Modems (both input and output) Network interface cards (both input and output). Input and Output devices and Systems. Storage system Issues n n n n n Historical Context of Storage and I/o secondary and Tertiary Storage devices Storage I/o performance measures queuing Theory Processor Interface Issues I/o buses Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive disks (raid) File systems I/o benchmarks File system Performance. Types of input it fundamentals. Input devices Most obvious human keyboard need to be: Accurate, reliable and easy to use, fast Human and keyboard is the most used input device machines make better input devices.
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A a silver b Result 22 n rom read Only memory. Rom can typically be written once, but read many times. It is used to store bios (Basic Input/Output System-helps to load and locate an operating system external to microprocessor, and computer instruction sets, internal to microprocessor n n The contents of the rom are hard wired by the manufacturer in a typical rom chip. When you turn the computer on, rom automatically prepares the computer system and loads the initial display screen prompt a variation of rom is prom (Programmable read Only memory in which the user can load programs and data that are read only. This can be done with device called a prom programmer. Writing to a prom destroys the internal links, so a basic prom can only be programmed once 23 n n n eproms (Erasable Programmable read Only memory) is a variation of prom, and is rewritable. It can be erased by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light. It can then be programmed with an eprom programmer Flash memory is a type of prom that can be easily altered by the user. They are also called eeproms (Electrically Erasable read Only memory) because they can be electrically erased then written on to (flashed) without having to take them out of the computer, and without using ultraviolet light. Since ram can be read faster than most roms, the frequently used content of the rom is sometimes copied to ram (shadowed). Secondary Storage n Magnetic disk n n Optical media n n Hard disk (File, directory, folder) Floppy disks Zip disks cd (680 MB) dvd (4.
Main Memory n n n A collection of cells Each cell has an address and a value random Access Memory (RAM) Cells can be accessed randomly ram is volatile All data stored in binary format Bit, byte and word are the unit of data. Main Memory n ram random Access Memory. Applications are typically loaded into ram during computer use. Types of ram include: n sram (static), dram (dynamic edo ram (extended data out), sdram (synchronous dynamic-most new PCs are equipped with this ram which is able to synchronize itself with the processor, enabling data transfer at more than twice the speed of previous ram. It is faster than dram (The contents of the memory can be read much faster however is more expensive and is larger in size dram is called Dynamic ram because the memory content needs to be refreshed periodically (every few milliseconds) due to leakage. It is slower than sram, but cheaper and smaller in size. Cpu-memory water Interaction Fetch-execute cycle 0 lda 14 1 add 15 Assume a is stored in 14 and b is stored in 15 Program 2 sta 14 3 hlt.
Increases computer throughput, and is a high-speed holding area for program instructions and data. It holds only instructions and data that are likely to be needed by the cpu. While programs are running on the computer, the same data or instructions might be needed frequently. In such cases, the processor first checks the cache memory for the data or instructions, thereby reducing the need for frequent access to the ram and speeding up the processing. Microprocessor System Buses Control Bus ram rom microprocessor (CPU) Data bus write Address Bus Input/Output (I/O). System Buses n n a bus is an internal communications path consisting of a number of lines connecting the system components Control bus The control bus synchronizes system events like memory access, system interrupts, I/o, etc. Address bus source and destination addresses assignments are sent over the address bus to identify a particular location in memory or input/output port. Data bus two way path for transferring data and instructions in and out of the microprocessor.
Structure of the cpu storage input/output control unit alu registers flags memory cache memory. Components of the cpu n n Arithmetic and Logic Unit (alu processes the data in the registers according to instructions issued by the control unit. Performs arithmetic (addition, subtraction, etc. ) and logical (comparison) operations Registers: provides temporary storage for data and instructions. It handles instructions and data at 10 times the speed of cache memory. Registers facilitate the movement of data and instructions between ram, the control unit and the alu n Control unit registers: n The instruction register contains the current instruction being n n executed The program register (instruction pointer) contains the ram address of the next instruction. Interprets instructions, moves data to/from memory and registers, instructs alu to perform certain operations, increments instruction pointer, etc. During program execution, instructions in a program are moved from the ram into the control unit, where it is decoded and interpreted by the decoder Flags: 1 -bit memory, or 1 -bit registers and hold information on what has recently happened in the cpu. These are set to 1 or 0 depending on the results of internal operations such as results of alu operations (zero or negative result) or external operations such as interrupts (commands that tell the processor to stop execution and wait for further instruction).
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Introduction n Computer is arguably the most important tool in the areas of engineering, science, business etc. N n Data acquisition and analysis Simulation Embedded applications n Process control n Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis systems n Automatic testing equipment n Robotics n Telecommunications Productivity software (word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentation) etc. Computer development n n The Abacus- babylonia-4 th century. The difference Engine- charles Babbage 1822 Vacuum tube - john Ambrose Fleming 1904 The eniac (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)-1945 n Used 17, 478 vacuum tubes n too late for ww-ii, but was used in the cold war to perform calculations to build a hydrogen. Html) Was not a general purpose computer: programming meant rewiring with punch cards and switches One of eniac's greatest feats was in showing the potential of what could be accomplished in the future Transistor - nobel prize in physics in 1956 7 n.
Apple i computer (1976) Generations of ICs: n n n Small scale integration - 1965 n Up to 100 devices on thief a chip Medium scale integration - to 1971 n 100 -3, 000 devices on a chip Large scale integration n 3, 000 devices. Moores Law: Number of transistors on a chip will double every 18 months. Computer Architecture central Processing Unit main Memory systems Interconnection Input Output. Components of a computer System Storage (External memory) input/output central processing unit main Memory (RAM). Computer Components 12, component description n n Central Processing Unit (CPU) or microprocessor, controls the operation of the computer and performs its data processing functions main memory - also called internal memory stores instructions and data. Memory is partitioned into separate instruction and data spaces Input/output (I/O) moves data between the computer and its external environment System interconnection some mechanism that provides for communications among the cpu, the main memory, and the I/O devices.
This solves the dependent validation problem. If it can be done asynchronously or in less than half a second, consider automatically posting record changes with the loss of focus on the cell or (alternatively) the row. This addresses the concurrency concern for multiple user apps, plus gives your users implicit save, another usability improvement web apps could use. Direct manipulation has been a proven usability principle since guis were invented. Modes have long been recognize to present usability problems. Its high time web apps caught up with a 1980s level of usability.
Btw, lots of explanatory in-window text (e.g., long labels and multiple messages) is an indication of a usability problem, not a solution. Advertisements, computer science project work for iii unit test. Made by: amit kumar bhim kumar chitranjan guided by:. History Of Computing. Computer Hardware n. Overview Computer development Computer architecture.
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Edit-in-place on the grid whenever possible and never have an edit dialog. I can think of no advantage to having an edit mode, and it wastes users time and adds complexity to app (from the users perspective). Having an edit dialog makes it harder to learn the app than edit-in-place because the user has to learn two windows and how to navigate between them. As experience with Excel, Access, and other desktop apps reveal, users do not have a problem editing a grid any more than editing anything else. You shouldnt have a problem, especially if make your grid look like an Excel worksheet or Access table or form, and not like your typical Click here to update web app. I think the tendency of some developers to make read-only grids is best a holdover from the early web app days when there were no editable grids or no grids at all -there were html tables and any editing required a form. I see no excuse for edit mode with today's technology. As for validation, inform the user of any validation error when focus leaves the cell, but do not use modal error indications (marking the field with color is one way to do this, but not on the only way). Let the user correct it whenever one wants, perhaps by fixing other fields.
misread or did not recognize) save as Word file Create a clean file and copy and paste the text into. 30, codeZapper "CodeZapper"is a set of Word macros designed to clean up Word files before being imported into a translation environment program such as Deja vu dvx or MemoQ. Word documents are often strewn with junk or rogue tags (so-called smart tags, languagetags, track changes tags, soft hyphenations, scaling and spacing changes, redundant bookmarks, etc.). This tagged information shows up in the dvx or MemoQ grid as spurious 1codes2around, or even in the middle of, words, making sentences difficult to read and translate and generally negating many of the productivity benefits of the program. 32 Final Words do not use online ocr tools like the tesseract ocr engine from google if your documents are confidential. Try several demos to determine which tool best suits your needs. Shop around for the best price (399.99. Eur 139/gbp 89 or even eur 90 (116).
AlignFactory, other tools: youalign by logiTerm; online tool, free (for a limited time limited selection of languages (m) nobabel AutoAligner by kcsl; online tool, limited selection of languages (m logiTerm AlignFactoryLight (m) quick and easy essay tool to create tms from pdf files 14, part Two. Choose Print pdf tool (Acrobat Distiller, win2pdf, etc.) Select the menu button 18, optical Character Recognition, ocr tools use pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and computer vision as well as digital character recognition. The accurate recognition of Latin-script, typewritten text is now considered largely a solved problem on applications where clear imaging is available such as scanning of printed documents. Some tools can now easily recognize cyrillic and Asian characters as well. 20, abbyy finereader, abbyy is the clear favorite among translators (although pdf transformer is a close second because it creates fewer text boxes than other ocr programs The spellcheck feature ensures the document you are working on doesnt have any spelling errors that would corrupt. Abbyy supports the most languages (184 at last count). Abkhaz, adyghian, Afrikaans, Agul, Albanian, Altai, armenian (Eastern, western, Grabar avar, aymara, azerbaijani (Cyrillic azerbaijani (Latin bashkir, basic, basque, belarusian, bemba, blackfoot, Breton, bugotu, bulgarian, buryat, C/c, cobol, catalan, cebuano, chamorro, chechen, Chinese simplified, Chinese Traditional, Chukchee, chuvash, corsican, Crimean Tatar, Croatian, Crow, czech, dakota. Ocr tools have problems with handwriting, bullet lists, check boxes, static from "fuzzy" fax transmissions, and tables.
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2, pdf file basics, what is a pdf file and why do we use them? Stands for "Portable document Format." pdf is a multi-platform file format developed by Adobe systems. A pdf file captures document text, fonts, images, and even formatting of documents from a variety of applications. You can e-mail a pdf document to moliere your friend and it will look the same way on his screen as it looks on yours, even if he has a mac and you have. Since pdfs contain color-accurate information, they should also print the same way they look on your screen. (Source: m) 4, adobe Acrobat, versions: Adobe reader, Adobe Acrobat Standard, Adobe Acrobat Pro, adobe Acrobat Pro Extended Product comparison: ml Compatibility with earlier versions Update to the current version of 9 Should be part of your toolbox. Working with pdf files, editing and Commenting pdf files searching for Text in pdf files Creating and Filling Electronic Forms Using Electronic Signatures Creating TMs from pdf files Using LogiTerm AlignFactory 8, editing and Commenting pdf files, touching up text (changing text and text properties). Creating and Filling Electronic Forms, simple filling with Typewriter tool Using text boxes Converting electronic files to forms using Form wizard Blueberry pdf form Filler; free application for filling in and printing pdf forms (px) Note: deselect Lock All Controls button 12, creating Translation Memories.