The following are the variations in Indian English that are often discouraged Most Indian languages (except Urdu varieties and Assamese ) lack the voiced alveolar fricative /z/. A significant portion of Indians thus, even though their native languages do have its nearest equivalent: the unvoiced /s often use the voiced palatal affricate (or postalveolar) /dʒ just as with a korean accent. This makes words such as zero and rosy sound as dʒiro and rodʒi (the latter, especially in the north). This replacement is equally true for Persian and Arabic loanwords into hindi. The probable reason is the confusion created by the use of the devanagari grapheme (for /dʒ with a dot beneath it to represent the loaned /z/ (as ). This is common among people without formal English education.
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34 Related to the previous characteristic, many Indians prefer to pronounce words such as flower as fla(r as opposed to flaʊə(r and our as a(r) as opposed to aʊə(r). South Indians tend to curl the tongue (retroflex accentuation) more for /l/ and /n/. Citation needed sometimes, Indian speakers interchange /s/ and /z especially when plurals are being formed, unlike speakers of other varieties of English, who use s for the pluralisation of words ending in a voiceless consonant, z for words ending in a voiced consonant or vowel. In case of the postalveolar affricates /tʃ/ /dʒ native languages like hindi have corresponding affricates articulated from the palatal region, rather than postalveolar, and they have more of a stop component than fricative; this is reflected in their English. Whilst retaining /ŋ/ in the final position, many Indian speakers add the ɡ sound after it when it occurs in the middle of a word. Hence /riŋiŋ/ /riŋɡiŋ/ ( ringing ). Citation needed syllabic /l /m/ and /n/ are usually replaced by the vc clusters əl, əm philadelphia and ən (as in button /buʈən or if a high vowel precedes, by il (as in little /liʈil. Syllable nuclei in words with the spelling er / re (a schwa in rp and an r-coloured schwa in ga ) are also replaced vc clusters. G., metre, /mitər/ /miʈər/. Citation needed Indian English uses clear l in all instances like irish English whereas other varieties use clear l in syllable-initial positions and dark l (velarised-L) in coda and syllabic positions.
This also causes (in parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar ) the /s/ preceding alveolar /t/ to allophonically change to ʃ ( stop /stɒp/ /ʃʈap. Mostly in south India, some speakers allophonically further change the voiced retroflex plosives to voiced retroflex flap, and the nasal /n/ to a nasalised retroflex flap. All major native languages of India (except Bengali) lack the dental fricatives θ/ and /ð spelled with th ). Usually, the aspirated voiceless dental plosive t is substituted for /θ/ in the north (it would be unaspirated in the south) and the unaspirated voiced dental plosive d, or possibly the aspirated version d, is substituted for /ð/. 33 For essays example, "thin" would be realised as tɪn instead of /θɪn/ for North Indian speakers, whereas it would be pronounced unaspirated in the south. The following are the variations in Indian English Pronunciations vary between rhotic and non-rhotic; with pronunciations leaning towards native phonology being generally rhotic, and others being non-rhotic. Most Indian languages (except Punjabi, marathi, assamese and Bengali including Standard Hindi, do not differentiate between /v/ ( voiced labiodental fricative ) and /w/ ( voiced labiovelar approximant ). Instead, many Indians use a frictionless labiodental approximant ʋ for words with either sound, possibly in free variation with v and/or w depending upon region. Thus, wet and vet are often homophones.
28 The same is true of the voiceless postalveolar afficate /tʃ/. The alveolar stops English /d /t/ are often retroflex ɖ, ʈ, especially in the south of India. 29 In Indian languages there are two entirely distinct sets of coronal plosives: one dental and the other retroflex. Native speakers of Indian languages prefer to pronounce the English alveolar plosives sound as more retroflex than dental, and the use of retroflex consonants is a common feature of Indian English. In the devanagari script of Hindi, all alveolar plosives of English are transcribed as their retroflex counterparts. One good reason for this is that unlike most other native indian languages, hindi does not have true retroflex plosives (Tiwari, ). The so-called retroflexes in Hindi are actually articulated as apical post-alveolar plosives, sometimes even with a tendency to come down to the alveolar region. So a hindi speaker normally cannot distinguish the difference between their own apical post-alveolar plosives and English's alveolar plosives. Languages such as Tamil have true retroflex plosives, however, wherein the articulation is done with the tongue curved upwards and backwards at the roof of the mouth.
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Among the distinctive features of the vowel-sounds employed by some Indian English speakers: Modern Indians, especially a minority of English students and teachers along with some people in various professions like telephone customer service agents, often speak with a non-rhotic accent. Examples of this include flower pronounced as /flaʊ.ə never as /nevə water as /wɔtə etc. Many north Indians have a sing-song quality as they speak english, which perhaps, results from a similar tone used while speaking Hindi. Indian English speakers and thus do not make a clear distinction between / ɒ / and / ɔ / unlike. Have the cot-caught merger Diphthong /eɪ/ is pronounced as / e / Diphthong /əʊ/ is pronounced as / o / / ɑ / may be more front / a / Most Indians have the trapbath split of Received Pronunciation, affecting words such as class, staff. Though the trap-bath split is prevalent master in Indian English, it varies greatly. Many younger Indians who read and listen to American English do not have this split.
The distribution is somewhat similar to australian English in Regional Indian English varieties, but it has a complete split in Cultivated Indian English and Standard Indian English varieties. Citation needed most Indians have a hoarse-horse split. The following are lee the variations in Indian English resulting from inability to articulate few vowels Pronunciation of / ɔ / as / o / Pronunciation of / æ / and / ɛ / as / e / Pronunciation of / ɔ / and /. The voiceless plosives /p /t /k/ are always unaspirated in Indian English, (aspirated in cultivated form) whereas in rp, general American and most other English accents they are aspirated in word-initial or stressed syllables. Thus "pin" is pronounced pɪn in Indian English but pɪn in most other dialects. In native indian languages (except in Dravidian languages such as Tamil the distinction between aspirated and unaspirated plosives is phonemic, and the English stops are equated with the unaspirated rather than the aspirated phonemes of the local languages.
With this in mind, the English Language Amendment Bill declared English to be an associate language "until such time as all non-Hindi States had agreed to its being dropped." This has not yet occurred, and it is still widely used. For instance, it is the only reliable means of day-to-day communication between the central government and the non-Hindi states. The view of the English language among many Indians has gone from associating it with colonialism to associating it with economic progress, and English continues to be an official language of India. 22 While there is an assumption that English is readily available in India, available studies show that its usage is actually restricted to the elite, 23 because of inadequate education to large parts of the Indian population. The use of outdated teaching methods and the poor grasp of English exhibited by the authors of many guidebooks, disadvantage students who rely on these books. 24 Hinglish edit The term, "Hinglish is a portmanteau of the languages English and Hindi.
This typically refers to the macaronic hybrid use of Hindi, or any south Asian language and English. It is often the growing preferred language of the urban and semi-urban educated Indian youth, as well as the Indian diaspora abroad. 25 The hindi film industry, more popularly known as Bollywood, incorporates considerable amounts of Hinglish as well. 26 Many internet platforms and voice commands on google also recognize hinglish. 27 Phonology edit Indian English phonology is ultimately based on Received Pronunciation. Vowels edit In general, the Indian English has fewer peculiarities in its vowel sounds than the consonants, especially as spoken by native speakers of languages like hindi, the vowel phoneme system having some similarities with that of English.
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In 1857, just before the end of Company rule, universities modelled on the University of London and using English as the medium of instruction were established in Bombay, calcutta and Madras. During subsequent Crown Rule in India, or the British Raj, lasting from 1858 to shortage 1947, English language penetration increased throughout India. This was driven in part by the gradually increasing hiring of Indians in the civil services. At the time of India's independence in 1947, English was the only functional lingua franca in the country. After Indian Independence in 1947, hindi was declared the first official language, and attempts were made ilahi to declare hindi the sole national language of India. Due to protests from Tamil Nadu and other non-Hindi-speaking states, it was decided to temporarily retain English for official purposes until at least 1965. By the end of this period, however, opposition from non-Hindi states was still too strong to have hindi declared the sole language.
Idiomatic forms derived from Indian grape literary languages and vernaculars have been absorbed into Indian English. Nevertheless, there remains general homogeneity in phonetics, vocabulary, and phraseology between various dialects of Indian English. History edit English language public instruction began in India in the 1830s during the rule of the east India company (India was then, and is today, one of the most linguistically diverse regions of the world 20 ). In 1835, English replaced Persian as the official language of the company. Lord Macaulay played a major role in introducing English and western concepts to education in India. He supported the replacement of Persian by English as the official language, the use of English as the medium of instruction in all schools, and the training of English-speaking Indians as teachers. 21 Throughout the 1840s and 1850s, primary-, middle-, and high-schools were opened in many districts of British India, with most high schools offering English language instruction in some subjects.
language edit, english, according to the Indian Constitution, is the language of the supreme court and all the high courts of India. The legal system in India is based off of British Common Law. 13 The Indian parliament has the power to change this law, but it has yet to. However, in Bihar, madhya pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan there is use of Hindi in courts because of Presidential approval. 14 In 2018, the punjab and Haryana high court also await Presidential approval for Hindi use as well. 15 features edit Indian English generally uses the Indian numbering system.
According to melisande the 2005, india human development Survey, 9 of the 41,554 surveyed, households reported that 72 of men (29,918) did not speak any English, 28 (11,635) spoke at least some English, and 5 (2,077, roughly.9 of those who spoke at least some English). Among women, the corresponding percentages were 83 (34,489) speaking no English, 17 (7,064) speaking at least some English, and 3 (1,246, roughly.6 of those who spoke at least some English) speaking English fluently. According to statistics of District Information System for Education (dise). National University of Educational Planning and Administration under, ministry of Human Resource development, government of India, enrollment in English-medium schools increased. The number of English-medium school students in India increased from over 15 million in 200809 to 29 million by 201314. 11, india ranks 22 out of 72 countries in the 2016. Ef english Proficiency Index published by the, ef education First.
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Indian English is any of the forms. English characteristic of, india. Contents, status of English in India edit, hindi is the official language of the Union government of India. However, even after 70 years. Indian Independence from Britain, english is still retained with a status of the "subsidiary" official language. 2, only a few hundred thousand Indians, or less than.1 of the total population, have english as their first language. 3 4 5 6, according to the 2001 Census,.6 of Indians know English. 7, an analysis of the 2001 Census of India 8 concluded that approximately 86 million Indians reported English as their second language, and another 39 million reported it as their third language. No data were available whether these individuals were English speakers or users.essay