Adams argued that the Stamp Act was unconstitutional; he also believed that it would hurt the economy of the British Empire. He supported calls for a boycott of British goods to put pressure on Parliament to repeal the tax. In Boston, a group called the loyal Nine, a precursor to the sons of Liberty, organized protests of the Stamp Act. Adams was friendly with the loyal Nine but was not a member. On August 14, stamp distributor Andrew Oliver was hanged in effigy from Boston's Liberty Tree ; that night, his home was ransacked and his office demolished. On August 26, lieutenant governor Thomas Hutchinson's home was destroyed by an angry crowd. Officials such as governor Francis Bernard believed that common people acted only under the direction of agitators and blamed the violence on Adams. This interpretation was revived by scholars in the early 20th century, who viewed Adams as a master of propaganda who manipulated mobs into doing his bidding.
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It strikes at our British privileges, which as we have never forfeited them, we hold in common with our Fellow Subjects who are natives of Britain. If Taxes are laid upon us in any shape without our having a legal Representation where they are laid, are we not reduced from the Character of free subjects to the miserable State of tributary Slaves? 66 "When the boston Town meeting approved the Adams instructions on may 24, 1764 writes historian John. Alexander, "it became the first political body in America to go on record stating Parliament could not constitutionally tax the colonists. The directives also contained the first official recommendation that the colonies present a unified defense of their rights." Adams's instructions were published in newspapers and pamphlets, and he soon became closely associated with James Otis,., a member of the massachusetts house famous for his. Otis boldly challenged the constitutionality of certain acts of Parliament, but he would not go as far as Adams, who was moving towards the conclusion that Parliament did not have sovereignty over the colonies. Stamp Act In 1765, parliament passed the Stamp Act which required colonists to pay a new tax on most printed materials. News of the passage of the Stamp Act produced an uproar in the colonies. The colonial response echoed Adams's 1764 instructions. In June resume 1765, Otis called for a stamp Act Congress to coordinate colonial resistance. The virginia house of Burgesses passed a widely reprinted set of resolves against the Stamp Act that resembled Adams's arguments against the sugar Act.
The British Parliament found itself deep in debt and looking for new sources of revenue, and they sought to directly tax the colonies of British America for the first time. This tax dispute was part of a larger divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution and the extent of Parliament's authority in the colonies. 63 Sugar Act The first step in the new program was the sugar Act of 1764, which Adams saw as an infringement of longstanding colonial rights. Colonists were not represented in Parliament, he argued, and therefore they could not be taxed by that body; the colonists were represented by the colonial assemblies, and only they could levy taxes upon them. Adams expressed these views in may 1764, when the boston Town meeting elected its representatives to the massachusetts house. As was customary, the town meeting provided the representatives with a set of written instructions, which Adams was selected to write. Adams highlighted what he perceived to be the dangers of taxation without representation : For if our Trade may be taxed, why not our Lands? Why inventory not the Produce of our Lands everything we possess or make use of? This we apprehend annihilates our Charter Right to govern tax ourselves.
In 1756, the boston Town meeting elected him to the post of tax collector, which provided a small income. He often failed to collect taxes from his fellow citizens, which increased his popularity among those who did not pay, but left him liable for the shortage. By 1765, his account was more than 8,000 in arrears. The town meeting was on the verge of bankruptcy, and Adams was compelled to file suit against delinquent taxpayers, but many taxes went uncollected. In 1768, his political opponents used the situation to their advantage, obtaining a court judgment of 1,463 against him. Adams's friends paid off some of the deficit, and the town meeting wrote off the remainder. By then, he had emerged as a leader of the popular party, and the embarrassing situation did not lessen his influence. Struggle with Great Britain Samuel Adams emerged as an important public figure in Boston soon after the British Empire 's victory pdf in the French and Indian War (17541763).
He argued that the people must resist any encroachment on their constitutional rights. He cited the decline of the roman Empire as an example of what could happen to new England if it were to abandon its Puritan values. When deacon Adams died in 1748, Adams was given the responsibility of managing the family's affairs. In October 1749, he married Elizabeth Checkley, his pastor's daughter. Elizabeth gave birth to six children over the next seven years, but only two lived to adulthood: Samuel (born 1751) and Hannah (born 1756). In July 1757, Elizabeth died soon after giving birth to a stillborn son. Adams remarried in 1764 to Elizabeth Wells, but had no other children. 42 like his father, Adams embarked on a political career with the support of the boston caucus. He was elected to his first political office in 1747, serving as one of the clerks of the boston market.
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He considered becoming a global lawyer, but instead decided to go into business. He worked at Thomas Cushing's counting house, but the job only lasted a few months because cushing felt that Adams was too preoccupied with politics to become a good merchant. Adams's father then lent him 1,000 to go into business for himself, a substantial amount for that time. Adams's lack of business instincts were confirmed; he lent half of this money to a friend who never repaid, and frittered away the other half. Adams always remained, in the words of historian pauline maier, "a man utterly uninterested in either making or possessing money". 42 The Old south meeting house ( 1968 photo shown ) was Adams's church. During the crisis with Great Britain, mass meetings were held here that were too large for Faneuil Hall.
After Adams had lost his money, his father made him a partner in the family's thesis malthouse, which was next to the family home on Purchase Street. Several generations of Adamses were maltsters, who produced the malt necessary for brewing beer. Years later, a poet poked fun at Adams by calling him "Sam the maltster". Adams has often been described as a brewer, but the extant evidence suggests that he worked as a maltster and not a brewer. 47 In January 1748, Adams and some friends were inflamed by British impressment and launched The Independent Advertiser, a weekly newspaper that printed many political essays written by Adams. His essays drew heavily upon English political theorist John Locke 's Second Treatise of government, and they emphasized many of the themes that characterized his subsequent career.
The younger Samuel Adams attended Boston Latin School and then entered Harvard College in 1736. His parents hoped that his schooling would prepare him for the ministry, but Adams gradually shifted his interest to politics. After graduating in 1740, Adams continued his studies, earning a master's degree in 1743. In his thesis, he argued that it was "lawful to resist the supreme magistrate, if the commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved which indicated that his political views, like his father's, were oriented towards colonial rights. Adams's life was greatly affected by his father's involvement in a banking controversy.
In 1739, massachusetts was facing a serious currency shortage, and deacon Adams and the boston caucus created a "land bank" which issued paper money to borrowers who mortgaged their land as security. The land bank was generally supported by the citizenry and the popular party, which dominated the house of Representatives, the lower branch of the general court. Opposition to the land bank came from the more aristocratic "court party who were supporters of the royal governor and controlled the governor's council, the upper chamber of the general court. The court party used its influence to have the British Parliament dissolve the land bank in 1741. Directors of the land bank, including deacon Adams, became personally liable for the currency still in circulation, payable in silver and gold. Lawsuits over the bank persisted for years, even after deacon Adams's death, and the younger Samuel Adams often had to defend the family estate from seizure by the government. For Adams, these lawsuits "served as a constant personal reminder that Britain's power over the colonies could be exercised in arbitrary and destructive ways". Early career After leaving Harvard in 1743, Adams was unsure about his future.
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Deacon Adams became a umum leading figure in Boston politics through an organization that became known as the boston caucus, which promoted candidates who supported popular causes. The boston caucus helped shape the agenda of the boston Town meeting. A new England town meeting is a form of local government with elected officials, and not just a gathering of citizens; according to historian William Fowler, it was "the most democratic institution in the British empire". Deacon Adams rose through the political ranks, becoming a justice of the peace, a selectman, and a member of the massachusetts house of Representatives. He worked closely with Elisha cooke,. (16781737 the leader of the "popular party a faction that resisted any encroachment by royal officials on inventory the colonial rights embodied in the massachusetts Charter of 1691. In the coming years, members of the "popular party" became known as Whigs or Patriots.
Both of these interpretations have been challenged by some modern scholars, who argue that these traditional depictions of Adams are myths contradicted by the historical record. Contents Early life samuel Adams was born in Boston in the British colony of Massachusetts on September 16, federalist 1722, an Old Style date that is sometimes converted to the new Style date of September. Adams was one of twelve children born to samuel Adams,., and Mary (Fifield) Adams in an age of high infant mortality; only three of these children lived past their third birthday. Adams's parents were devout Puritans and members of the Old south Congregational Church. The family lived on Purchase Street in Boston. Adams was proud of his Puritan heritage, and emphasized Puritan values in his political career, especially virtue. (16891748) was a prosperous merchant and church deacon.
in 1774, at which time Adams attended the continental Congress in Philadelphia which was convened to coordinate a colonial response. He helped guide congress towards issuing the continental Association in 1774 and the declaration of Independence in 1776, and he helped draft the Articles of Confederation and the massachusetts Constitution. Adams returned to massachusetts after the American revolution, where he served in the state senate and was eventually elected governor. Samuel Adams later became a controversial figure in American history. Accounts written in the 19th century praised him as someone who had been steering his fellow colonists towards independence long before the outbreak of the revolutionary war. This view gave way to negative assessments of Adams in the first half of the 20th century, in which he was portrayed as a master of propaganda who provoked mob violence to achieve his goals.
He was a second cousin to his fellow founding Father, President. Adams filsafat was born in, boston, brought up in a religious and politically active family. Harvard College, he was an unsuccessful businessman and tax collector before concentrating on politics. He was an influential official of the. Massachusetts house of Representatives and the, boston Town meeting in the 1760s, and he became a part of a movement opposed to the. British Parliament 's efforts to tax the, british American colonies without their consent. Massachusetts Circular Letter calling for colonial non-cooperation prompted the occupation of Boston by British soldiers, eventually resulting in the. Boston Massacre of 1770. Adams and his colleagues devised a committee of correspondence system in 1772 to help coordinate resistance to what he saw as the British government's attempts to violate the.
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For the beer brand, see, samuel Adams (beer). For other uses, see, samuel Adams (disambiguation). Samuel Adams (September. September October 2, 1803) was short an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the, founding Fathers of the United States. He was a politician in colonial Massachusetts, a leader of the movement that became the. American revolution, and one of the architects of the principles. American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States.