The extended keyboards have 110, 109, and 112 keys (iso, ansi, and jis, respectively and the compact models have 79, 78, and. Visual layouts edit a visual layout consisting of both factory-printed symbols and customized stickers. A visual layout refers to the symbols printed on the physical keycaps. Visual layouts vary by language, country, and user preference, and any one mechanical and functional layout can be employed with a number of different visual layouts. For example, the "ISO" keyboard layout is used throughout Europe, but typical French, german, and uk variants of mechanically identical keyboards appear different because they bear different legends on their keys. Even blank keyboards with no legends are sometimes used to learn typing skills or by user preference.
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The jis html mechanical layout (bottom right) is the basis for Japanese keyboards. Here it is the right-hand shift key that is smaller. Furthermore, the space bar and backspace key are also smaller, to make room for four additional keys. Mechanical layouts only address tangible differences among keyboards. When a key is pressed, the keyboard does not send a message such as the a-key is depressed but rather the left-most main key of the home row is depressed. (Technically, each key has an internal reference number, "raw keycodes and these numbers are what is sent to the computer when a key is pressed or released.) The keyboard and the computer each have no information about what is marked on that key, and. The user of the computer is requested to identify the functional layout of the keyboard when installing the operating system. Today, most keyboards use one of three different mechanical layouts, usually referred to as simply iso ( iso/iec 9995 -2 ansi ( ansi - incits 154-1988 and jis ( jis x referring roughly to the organizations issuing the relevant worldwide, united States, and Japanese standards. (In fact, the mechanical layouts referred such as "ISO" and "ansi" comply to the primary recommendations in the named standards, while each of these standards in fact also allows the other way.) keyboard layout in this sense may refer either to this broad categorization. For example, as of may 2008 Apple Inc produces iso, ansi, and jis desktop keyboards, each in both extended and compact forms.
Newer keyboards may incorporate even further additions, such as Internet access (World Wide web navigation) keys and multimedia (access to media players) buttons. Mechanical, visual, and functional layouts edit As noted before, the layout of a keyboard may refer to its mechanical (physical arrangement of keys visual (physical labeling of keys or water functional (software response to a keypress) layout. Mechanical layouts edit a comparison of common mechanical layouts. The iso mechanical layout (center left) is common,. G., in the United Kingdom. Compared with the ansi layout (top left the enter key is vertical rather than horizontal. In addition, the left shift key is smaller, to make room for an additional key to its right.
The selectric layout moved off the essay digits, replacing them with resume and instead placing and -_ as pairs on keys; this is a cause of the divergence between the bit-paired keyboards found in the 1960s and 1970s and the typewriter-paired keyboards that are now standard. This change was made because smaller characters hit the paper with less force, and consolidating smaller characters such as into a pair on a single key avoided needing to adjust the force based on shift state. 5 The standard 101/102-key pc keyboard layout was invented by mark tiddens of key tronic Corporation in 1982. Citation needed ibm adopted the layout on its pc at in 1984 (after previously using an 84-key keyboard which did not have separate cursor and numeric key pads). Most modern keyboards basically conform to the layout specifications contained in parts 1, 2, and 5 of the international standard series iso/iec 9995. These specifications were first defined by the user group at afnor in 1984 working under the direction of Alain souloumiac. 6 Based on this work, a well known ergonomic expert wrote a report 7 which was adopted at the iso berlin meeting in 1985 and became the reference for keyboard layouts. The 104/105-key pc keyboard was born when two win keys and a menu key were added on the bottom row (originally for the microsoft Windows operating system).
With the advent of the printing telegraph, a keyboard was needed to select characters. Some of the earliest printing telegraph machines used a layout similar to a piano keyboard. 2 3 In countries using the latin script, the center, alphanumeric portion of the modern keyboard is most often based on the qwerty design by Christopher Sholes, who laid out the keys in such a way that common two-letter combinations were placed on opposite sides. Although it has been demonstrated that the qwerty layout is not the most efficient layout for typing, 4 it remains the standard. Sholes chose the size of the keys to be on three-quarter inch (0.75-inch) centers (about 19 mm, versus musical piano keys which are.5 mm or about.93 inches wide). 0.75 inches has turned out to be optimum for fast key entry by the average size hand, and keyboards with this key size are called "full-sized keyboards". The selectric (1961 an electric typewriter, changed layout in a few ways, primarily in symbol placement.
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1900 keyboard layouts have evolved over time, usually alongside major technology changes. Particularly influential have been: the Sholes and Glidden typewriter (1874, also known as Remington. 1 the first commercially successful typewriter, which introduced qwerty; its successor, the remington. 2 (1878 which introduced the shift key; the ibm selectric (1961 a very influential electric typewriter, which was imitated by computer keyboards; 1 and the ibm pc (1981 namely the model M (1985 which is the basis for many modern keyboard layouts. Within a community, keyboard layout is generally quite stable, due to the high training cost of touch-typing, and the resulting network effect of having a standard layout and high switching cost of retraining, and the suboptimal qwerty layout is a case study in switching costs.
Nevertheless, significant market forces can result in changes write (as in Turkish adoption of qwerty and non-core keys are more prone to change, as they are less frequently used and less subject to the lock-in of touch-typing. The main, alphanumeric portion is typically stable, while symbol keys and shifted key values change somewhat, modifier keys more so, and function keys most of all: qwerty dates to the. 1 (1874) (though 1 and 0 were added later shifted keys date in some cases to the. 2 (1878 in other cases to the selectric (1961 and modifier key placement largely dates to the model M (1985 function key placement typically dates to the model m, but varies significantly, particularly on laptops. The earliest mechanical keyboards were used in musical instruments to play particular notes.
Dead keys edit main article: dead key a dead key is a special kind of a modifier key that, instead of being held while another key is struck, is pressed and released before the other key. The dead key does not generate a character by itself, but it modifies the character generated by the key struck immediately after, typically making it possible to type a letter with a specific diacritic. For example, on some keyboard layouts, the grave accent key is a dead key; in this case, striking and then A results in à ( a with grave accent whereas followed by e results in è ( e with grave accent). A grave accent in isolated form can be typed by striking and then Space bar. A key may function as a dead key by default, or sometimes a normal key can temporarily be altered to function as a dead key by simultaneously holding down the secondary-shift key altGr or Option. In some systems, there is no indication to the user that a dead key has been struck, so the key appears dead, but in some text-entry systems the diacritical mark is displayed along with an indication that the system is waiting for another keystroke: either.
Compared with the secondary-shift modifier key, the dead-key approach may be a little more complicated, but it allows more additional letters. Using the secondary shift, you may only type one or (if you use it simultaneously with the normal shift key) two additional letters with each key, whereas using a dead key, a specific diacritic can be attached to a number of different base letters. Compose key edit main article: Compose key a compose key can be characterized as a generic dead key that may in some systems be available instead of or in addition to the more specific dead keys. It allows access to a wide range of predefined extra characters by interpreting a whole sequence of keystrokes following. For example, striking Compose followed by ' ( apostrophe ) and then A results in á ( a with acute accent compose followed by a and then E results in æ ( ae ligature and Compose followed by o and then C results in (circled. The compose key is supported by the x window System (used by most Unix-like operating systems, including most Linux distributions ). Some keyboards have a key labeled "Compose but any key can be configured to serve this function. For example, the otherwise redundant right-hand win key may, when available, be used for this purpose. History edit keyboard of a letter-Printing Telegraph Set built by siemens and Halske in saint Petersburg, russia,.
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Keys either as function keys or for other functions like media control, accessing dashboard widgets, controlling the volume, or handling exposé. Fn key can be also found on many ibm pc laptops, where it serves a similar purpose. Many Unix workstations (and also home computers like the Amiga ) keyboards placed the Ctrl key to the left of the letter a, and the caps Lock key in the bottom left. This layout is often preferred by programmers as it makes the Ctrl key easier to reach. This position of the Ctrl key is also used on the xo laptop, which does not have a caps Lock. The unix keyboard layout also differs in the placement of the esc key, which is to the left. Some early keyboards experimented with using large dessay numbers of modifier keys. The most extreme example of such a keyboard, the so-called " Space-cadet keyboard " found on mit lisp machines, had no fewer than seven modifier keys: four control keys, Ctrl, meta, hyper, and Super, along with three shift keys, shift, top, and Front. This allowed the user to type over 8000 possible characters by playing suitable "chords" with many modifier keys pressed simultaneously.
To make room for additional symbols, keyboards often have what is effectively a secondary shift key, labeled AltGr (which typically takes the place of the right-hand Alt key). It can be used gre to type an extra symbol in addition to the two otherwise available with an alphanumeric key, and using it simultaneously with the shift key may even give access to a fourth symbol. On the visual layout, these third-level and fourth-level symbols may appear on the right half of the key top, or they may be unmarked. Instead of the Alt and AltGr keys, Apple keyboards have cmd ( command ) and Option keys. The option key is used much like the AltGr, and the cmd key like the Ctrl on ibm pcs, to access menu options and shortcuts. Macs have a ctrl key for compatibility with programs that expect a more traditional keyboard layout. It is especially useful when using a terminal, X11 (a Unix environment included with os x as an install option) or ms windows. The key can generally be used to produce a secondary mouse click as well. There is also a fn key on modern Mac keyboards, which is used for switching between use of the F1, F2, etc.
three shift keys, called " shift "top and "front". Besides the character keys, a keyboard incorporates special keys that do nothing by themselves but modify the functions of other keys. For example, the shift key can be used to alter the output of character keys, whereas the Ctrl ( control ) and Alt ( alternate ) keys trigger special operations when used in concert with other keys. Typically, a modifier key is held down while another key is struck. To facilitate this, modifier keys usually come in pairs, one functionally identical key for each hand, so holding a modifier key with one hand leaves the other hand free to strike another key. An alphanumeric key labeled with only a single letter (usually the capital form) can generally be struck to type either a lower case or capital letter, the latter requiring the simultaneous holding of the shift key. The shift key is also used to type the upper of two symbols engraved on a given key, the lower being typed without using the modifier key. The English alphanumeric keyboard has a dedicated key for each of the letters az, along with keys for punctuation and other symbols. In many other languages there are additional letters (often with diacritics ) or symbols, which also need to be available on the keyboard.
A computer keyboard consists of alphanumeric or character keys rainbow for typing, modifier keys for altering the functions of other keys, navigation keys for moving the text cursor on the screen, function keys and system command keys such as, esc and, break for special actions, and. There is some variation between different keyboard models in the mechanical layout. E., how many keys there are and how they are positioned on the keyboard. However, differences between national layouts are mostly due to different selections and placements of symbols on the character keys. Character keys edit The core section of a keyboard consists of character keys, which can be used to type letters and other characters. Typically, there are three rows of keys for typing letters and punctuation, an upper row for typing digits and special symbols, and the Space bar on the bottom row. The positioning of the character keys is similar to the keyboard of a typewriter.
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A keyboard layout is any writing specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard. Mechanical layout is the placements and keys of a keyboard. Visual layout is the arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Functional layout is the arrangement of the key-meaning associations, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard. Most computer keyboards are designed to send scancodes to the operating system, rather than directly sending characters. From there, the series of scancodes is converted into a character stream by keyboard layout software. This allows a physical keyboard to be dynamically mapped to any number of layouts without switching hardware components merely by changing the software that interprets the keystrokes. It is usually possible for an advanced user to change keyboard operation, and third-party software is available to modify or extend keyboard functionality. Contents, key types edit, a typical computer keyboard consists of sections with different types of keys.