They dont help me understand what action the writer wants me to take. They waste my time. We could fill a dozen pages with complaints of this sort. Unclear, poorly written, or confusing is the verdict of vice presidents of two hundred major. Companies on a full third of the business writing they confront. New Yorks Commissioner of Education, frustrated that so many of the letters and memos passing through his office were confusing or did not answer questions quickly enough, ordered his 250 top officials to take a course in d so it goes.
A brief history of handwriting examination
You will find advice you can act on, whenever you have to convert empty screen or blank paper into a letter, a memo, a report, a recommendation, a proposal, a speech, a resume. Youll get help from specific side-by- side examples of good writing versus bad. Generations ago the telephone killed the art of executive writing. Now its poised for a comeback, reports The wall Street journal, noting that e-mail sends everyone to a keyboard. No wonder companies institute writing courses. Effective writing is hard work even for the best writers (and even on a computer but the principles are simple. They dont require unusual talent or special skills. They are easy to understand and easy to put into use. What you do need is a degree of determination — the perseverance to be sure youve said presenter what you want to say. This book aims to help you do that with less difficulty and more confidence, and get the results youre looking for — from everything you write. 1 Writing That Works too many of the communications I get are meaningless, observes a leading ceo.
Replacing paper with a pc screen doesnt change the need for clear, precise communication. And replacing a formal memo with a bullet-pointed presentation deck doesnt justify loose thinking. In the second edition, we introduced some thoughts on how to avoid the pitfalls of sexist language. We have expanded those thoughts into a separate chapter on political correctness — and the extent to which it should or should not influence the way you write. Throughout the book, we have freshened examples and sharpened points by practicing what we preach about editing. Coming from a world of thirty-second commercials has trained us to cut to the essence — and helped keep this book slim and our message accessible. Nothing that follows is academic or theoretical.
That illustrates one of the changes in the way people communicate that propelled us to undertake a universities thorough revision. E-mail has become so ubiquitous that we added a chapter and revised several others to take full account of its influence. Another change in recent years is the fading of the internal memo — displaced in many uses by e-mail, in others by the presentation deck. Our purpose, however, remains unchanged. We wrote the book to help those millions of nonprofessional writers who must use the written word to get results — in business, in government, in education, in the arts. Thats still our goal. Nor have we found any cause to abandon the principles we espouse. To the contrary, the speed and ease of e-mail and word processing serve as an invitation to sloppy writing.
Making It Easy to read. Other books That Will Help you write better. Acknowledgments, about the author, praise for, writing That Works, 3rd Edition. Previous books, copyright About the publisher. Preface Why a third Edition? The first edition of this book was written on a typewriter; we delivered a typed manuscript to the publisher. We wrote the second edition on computers and delivered a printed manuscript. This edition was written on computers and e-mailed to our editor—no manuscript, not even disks.
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Contents, epigraph, preface: Why a third Edition? Writing That Works. Dont Mumble—and Other Principles of Effective writing. I love my computer. E-mail—the Great mailbox in the sky.
Memos and Letters That Get Things Done. Writing for an Audience: Presentations and Speeches. Plans and Reports That make things Happen. Recommendations and Proposals That Sell Ideas. Asking for Money: Sales and Fund-raising Letters. Coping with Political Correctness. Writing a resume—and Getting an Interview.
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Cover photo is available under :me 'unknown' license. Credit: ( see original file ). Successfully reported this slideshow. Writing That Works Roman-Raphaelson, upcoming SlideShare, loading. Show More, no downloads, no notes for slide. Writing That Works, third Edition. How to communicate effectively in business: e-mail letters memos presentations plans reports proposals resumes speeches, kenmeth Roman and joel Raphaelson. If language is not correct, then what is said is not what is meant; If what is said is not what is meant, Then what ought to be done remains undone.
Storm Writing School Scene
The dry climate of Egypt was perfectly suited to preserving these ancient papyri as well as the parchment documents, though these tended to dry out and become brittle. The contents of some of the surviving documents found in Roman Egypt are much like letters time that might be written today by those of us who found ourselves in similar circumstances. These included a letter to a legionary warming commander recommending a man for recruiting into the army, a similar letter informing that an applicant was rejected because he didnt pass the eye exam, and letters from soldiers to their families at home asking for money. Surprisingly, the ink sometimes lasted longer than the parchment. The city of Herculaneum was destroyed by a volcanic mudflow from mount Vesuvius. The damp, corrosive ash caused the leather and parchment scrolls to deteriorate so that they became like flaky, black carbon. However, the ink, of another shade of black, survived in very readable condition. If the scrolls could be unrolled with great care and without crumbling to powder, then the darker letters stood out and could be read and transcribed before the scroll disintegrated totally. Go to next article: go back to previous article: Return to roman Writers, Writing, and Historians Table of Contents.
These folding tablets and styli were the standard writing materials for Roman schoolchildren. They went by many names. In Latin they were called cerae or codices. In the Greek portion of help the empire, they were called diptycha, trypticha, and other names which began with the Greek word for the number of individual tablets in the set. The romans loved to have their portrait painted or a mosaic portrait made of themselves holding a rolled book or a wax tablet and stylus, like the image at top right. They felt that these articles symbolized the education and cultured background of those who were shown holding them. Color photographs of writing stylii, inkwells, and other implements may be seen in the excellent eyewitness books title. Ancient Rome, which will probably be available from larger booksellers and public libraries for the next few years. For letter writing, there were different grades of papyrus, depending on whether it was an official imperial dispatch or a personal letter to a friend in a different province.
papyrus and parchment scrolls. For personal use and for short notes that would be erased later, they used small wax tablets. These were usually bound together on a leather thong or arranged to fold together like modern book covers or like an accordion. The individual tablets were made of wood and had a raised edge, forming a shallow box. Into this box, molten wax was poured and allowed to cool with a smooth surface. This wax was usually a deep red or reddish brown in color. A metal or bone stilvs (stylus) was used to write upon the tablet, the pointed end to make the letters and the flattened end to smooth over and "erase" writing that was no longer wanted.
Mesopotamians had clay tablets that were impressed with cuneiform symbols when wet and melisande fired to form a permanent record. Tens of thousands of these durable records have survived to this day and are still found in the deserts of Iran, Iraq, and Turkey. The Egyptians favored carving their hieroglyphs into stone walls, tombs, and monuments but they also gave us the durable, flexible and lightweight papyrus made from a reed that grows in the nile river Valley. By the time of the Greeks and Romans, papyrus was being manufactured in officinae (workshops) in several different grades and qualities, ranging from rough wrapping papyrus to the beautifully smooth product that was used for royal documents and lovely, hand crafted books suitable for presentation. Also available to the romans were sheep and cow hide. One could write on heavy tanned leather, or the skins of cows and sheep could be shaved very thin to form parchment and vellum. Parchment was very strong and durable, but heavier than papyrus.
Insights into the evolution of Archaea and eukaryotic
Synonyms: corresponding with, in touch with, writing to, contact, communicating, more. Collocations: clear, legible, illegible, lopsided, neat, untidy, messy writing, a writing desk, course, competition, syllabic, alphabetic, Greek, roman writing, more. I have a talent for writing in writing Is my russian hand-writing any good? To finish writing Welcome to the Writing Center What type of script is used in writing? Roman Writers, Writing and Historians: Writing Materials in the roman World. Contents, previous Article, next Article, in the image at right, probably a painting done for this couple's wedding, the woman is shown holding warming the kind of wax tablet the romans used for everyday writing like grocery lists and schoolchildrens' lessons. She has a writing stylus pressed to her lips. Ancient peoples used a much greater variety of materials upon which to write than we do today.