At the industry level, we need better technological skills. In the last ten years soil remediation work has mostly been carried out to allow for property development — usually soil is dug up and taken away for treatment elsewhere. That has prevented the sector developing a diverse range of approaches. Overseas it is more common for pollution to be dealt with in situ. Thats cheaper, but takes longer — from one or two years, to 10. Currently there are no laws or regulations on soil pollution, just a document from the Office of the State council on short-term arrangements for protection and remediation of the soil, and there was also a circular from the mep. Theres a real need for that action plan, just like there was for the air pollution action plan last year. But the action plan is still focused on farmland, as the state is mostly concerned with food security.
7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution
But soil can change hugely within just a metre. So neither the public nor companies can approach soil pollution resume in the same way they think about air or water pollution. And each site is different. O ne chemical plant might have been operating for longer than another, but if its environmental standards are stricter then its site may be less polluted. In the north groundwater is very deep, in the south nearer the surface, and that changes how pollution migrates. There are differences in types of soil — sandy soil and clay need to be handled differently. There are also differences in the types of pollutants, and the abilities of the companies doing the work. It takes experience for a doctor to be able to write a prescription and tell you what medicine to take, how much, how often. Soil remediation companies also need to gather experience in assessing and treating soil, and in China these companies are only just getting started. It will take time for them to build up the technology, the personnel, the experience and the background. Thats a limiting factor.
Currently this approach is common worldwide — for example in taiwan, korea and Japan here in Asia. And that would be the best way for China to get started. People are now aware of the risks of polluted sites, and now we should evaluate those risks. This is a flexible approach: the model vegetarianism may allow for some sites to be subject to less remediation, or to be left untreated. So it works both ways. At the end of February, the mep published guidance on the survey, evaluation, remediation and monitoring of polluted sites, providing a standard procedure for dealing with pollution. This boosted market confidence and provided a good norm to follow. Soil is unlike air or water. If you take an air sample, you can be confident that the air one kilometre away is more or less the same.
The only standard was set in Shanghai, for the world Expo in 2010, whose site was formerly industrial land. Some provinces have used that as a point of reference for soil remediation efforts. Other places, such as beijing, have opted to look to international risk models. This means first assessing risk factors and determining, based on the state of the pollution and the future use of the site, an acceptable risk index: for example, one case of cancer per million people might be deemed acceptable. You then work backwards, to see what level pollution must be reduced. The lower metamorphosis the acceptable level of risk, the higher the standards for remediation. Under this model, the purpose of the site determines what level of pollutants will be classed as «polluted». For example, lower levels of pollutants might be required for a hospital or kindergarten, than for a factory.
There is a soil Environmental quality Standard for farmland, but this only covers two organic pollutants, hexachlorocyclohexane and ddt, and eight heavy metals — cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, lead, chromium, zinc and nickel — and dates back to 1995. Thats currently being revised to include new pollution standards. It will set standards for levels of different pollutants in different types of land, and if that level is breached the land will be classed as polluted. So that single standard will apply in all cases. Soil pollution in China is quite serious, but theres no remediation system and much polluted farmland goes untreated. There is no single standard for remediation of industrial and mining sites, or for urban land. Currently remediation of urban land is usually done to allow further development.
Dna: Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine & Complementary
Environmental concerns start with what can be seen or felt: surface water pollution, air pollution. Only later does soil or groundwater pollution come to light. Thats been the experience in any country. Over the last two decades China has mainly been concerned with pollution of surface water and the air. Second, soil and groundwater have a certain environmental capacity — problems dont become apparent until a certain degree of pollution has accumulated. Third, in urban weekend areas soil pollution only came to light as industry moved out to make way for the service sector.
In 2007, many urban industrial or mining concerns were relocated or shut down to make way for property development, but this exposed urban pollution. For example, in 2004, workers on beijings Line 10 subway fell ill while working a site previously occupied by a pesticide plant. That made the public and the environmental authorities aware of the issue. Then there were similar cases with the beijing superman 3rd Chemical Plant, beijing Hongshi paint Factory, beijing dye factory, beijing coking Plant and Shougang Steel. But in urban areas there are no confirmed cases of soil pollution causing public health issues. The problem hasnt been known for very long — its only in the last 10 years that this process has started, and identifying a causal relationship requires a long period of observation. That is unless there is a case of very concentrated pollution, such as the love canal case in New York, where homes were built on an industrial waste site, leading to a cluster of cancer cases over the following decades.
For accurate soil monitoring in China, it will be necessary to set up routine monitoring systems at various scales (national, provincial, and local scales taking into consideration monitoring indicators and quality assurance. This is currently an important priority for the environmental protection administration of China. Chinas polluted land is in urgent need of cleaning up, but at present there is a lack of both experience and legislation, says gao shengda. In China there is no single standard for remediation of industrial and mining sites, or for urban land. Much polluted farmland goes untreated. In late 2013, the ministry of Land and Resources revealed that approximately 50 million mu (3.3 million hectares) of farmland was «moderately» polluted.
In response, in late march, the ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) proposed its «Action Plan for Prevention of soil Pollution». Soil pollution comes mainly from mining and industrial activity. Chinas 30 years of rapid economic growth have inevitably caused many environmental problems. Europe and the us saw the same thing during their periods of quick growth. Polluted farmland is more serious in provinces with mining areas: Hunan, guangxi, jiangxi, guizhou, gansu. In urban areas pollution is mainly due to heavy metal and petrochemical production. But that pollution isnt just due to output for Chinas own needs. In recent years many overseas manufacturers have moved to China and become major sources of pollution. The increased frequency of incidents is down to three reasons: first, soil and groundwater pollution is hidden, and previously it wasnt a matter of concern.
Intermediate accounting with air france-klm 2013 annual report
Levels of contamination are in municipal soil, in mining industry used agricultural soil and soil indexes of contamination and concentration. On the ecological standard of quality of soils two organic pollutants and a few heavy online metals (cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, lead, chrome, zinc and nickel) are educed. Over the past few decades, numerous concerns have been raised in China over the issue of environmental sustainability. Various soil survey and monitoring programs have been carried out in China to study soil quality, and to provide a scientific basis for environment policy making. This paper provides an overview of past and current soil quality surveys and monitoring activities in China. This paper includes a summary of concerns over background concentrations of elements in soil, and soil environmental standards and guidelines in China. Levels of pollution in urban soil, agricultural soil, and soil in mining and smelting areas were compared using the concentrations and pollution indexes. In addition to soil surveys, soil monitoring is essential to study the data and to examine the effects of contaminants in soils. However, the current soil quality monitoring system was insufficient to accurately determine the soil quality status of soils across China.
Clean-up operations lead to summary a positive environmental balance. Soil remediation can lead to a net transfer of contamination to other compartments. The polluted areas must delay some specific developments. Scientists can consider multifunctionality as the soil-related interpretation of sustainability. This framework could show how to combine risk reduction. In order to respond to the application need a more comprehensive evaluation framework must be considered. In the article the estimation of scientific researches and ecological monitoring soils that were executed in China is given, to study quality of soil and provide the scientific founding for creation of ecological politics. And similarly in the article given results of past and current quality reviews of soil and supervisory actions in China. And also in the article led supposition of fears concerning the second-rate concentrations of elements in soil, and ecological standards of soil and recommendation in China.
pollution is a source of risk. The presence of polluted areas may delay some specific developments. To eliminate the risk to a man is the ultimate aim of the operations. One should assess remediation strategy.
Soil remediation requires the use of resources summary (like energy and clean water) and may lead to a net transfer of contamination to other compartments (for instance, due to air emissions). Therefore, the single perspective implied by the multifunctionality may result into an approach which disregards many relevant concerns for soil remediation. Requires, process, the, of, use, resources, remediation, natural. Awareness, been, a, has, achieved, growing. Multifunctionality, aimed, at, are, measures, these. Computed, yearly, are, costs. Clean-up, of, operations, merit, the, based, are, evaluation, an, on, Environmental, Index. Through, interviews, assessed, weights, are. Approaches, some, are, fundamental, there.
Targus, amp09eu, multiMedia present, remote w CursorContr
Text 16A, soil pollution has become a priority in many industrialized countries after the inventory of various locations in which contamination was posing a risk to people and the environment. The effects of soil contamination are different: - soil pollution is a source of risk for humans and ecosystems, which are (potentially) affected by direct exposure to the contaminated surface or by indirect exposure, for instance through contaminated ground water; - soil contamination. An industrial storage facility - for privately owned sites, a polluted area essays is a heavy economic burden of remediation expenditures (a net cost for the company) and of soil usage; - the presence of polluted areas may hinder and delay some specific developments which imply. The ultimate objective of the operations is to eliminate the risk to a man and the environment and to prevent the dispersion of pollution, that is to restore multifunctionality in the shortest possible time. Soil multifunctionality requires that the soil on the site after sanitation should pose no harm to humans, animals or plants, regardless of the use of the site, the type of soil, the type of pollutants and the local situation. This is a very demanding objective, totally driven by environmental quality considerations. There is, however, a growing awareness that other criteria should be included when assessing remediation strategies. One of the reasons is that the costs involved in multifunctional operations are no longer political defendable. There is also a growing recognition that clean-up operations do not necessarily lead to a positive environmental balance.